As for the lateen sail, various authors have in the past suggested that it was introduced into the Mediterranean by the Arabs, possibly with an ultimate origin in India.However, the discovery of new depictions and literary references in recent decades has led scholars to antedate the appearance of the lateen sail in the Levant to the late Hellenistic or early Roman period.Huawei Rotating CEO Guo Ping: Maslow's hierarchy of needs outlines a range of needs, including physical, safety, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Industry players are now leveraging their own strengths to shift from investment-driven to value-driven growth. The telecom sector is an enabler and driver of a smart world and industry digitization.
Boarding actions and hand-to-hand fighting determined the outcome of most naval battles in the Middle Ages.
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One possibility is that the change occurred because of the gradual evolution of the ancient shell-first mortise and tenon hull construction method, against which rams had been designed, into the skeleton-first method, which produced a stronger and more flexible hull, less susceptible to ram attacks.
Certainly by the early 7th century, the ram's original function had been forgotten, if we judge by Isidore of Seville's comments that they were used to protect against collision with underwater rocks.